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Echelon is split into numerous geographically bound political areas, and these are generally analogous to nation-states. Geographically it is also split into a number of different regions - areas bound by impressive geological features like mountains and seas.
Generally nations follow racial, cultural and linguistic boundaries, but not always. Where these different factors intersect, it leads to a lively mixture of mismatched and combined languages, races and cultures, and often plenty of petty and not-so-petty squabbles amongst neighbours for a myriad of reasons.
The nations of Echelon are listed by the region that they reside in:
The Altelands are in the north-west of Echelon, north of the Vennlands and bordered by sea on 3 sides. They are glacier-carved and mountainous, full of fjords and lakes. Its winters are snow-bound and frigid, and their summers mild and misty. Many dwarves and fey make their homes here.
The Ariannath is in the north-east of Echlon, with the Sea of Ice to its west and the World's Edge mountains to the east. Full of vast mountains and even vaster tundra plains, the Ariannath is mostly cold all year around, with its southern half gaining the benefit of warm summers. These are the ancient cradles of dwarven and human civilisations.
Calaer is the large island on the west of Echelon. Famous for its forests and woodlands, it boasts fertile farming lands. Its eastern edge holds tree-covered mountains. Calaer is often rainy, misty and sunny, often during the same day. Calaer is home to the Elven empire.
The Vennlands sit on a peninsula bordered by the lakes Dubh and Great Blue, and the straight of Isles. The Vennlands offer verdant rolling hills and ample space for farming. The Vennlands experience chilly winters and mild, wet summers. It is without doubt the most cosmopolitan place in Echelon, the meeting point for many races and languages; albeit one with a history of warfare.
Viridias lies south of the Vennlands, separated from the Lutin Peninsula by the Straight of Tides and the Wolds by the Great Blue Lake. Viridias is the most fertile region in Echelon, and boasts vast and ancient forests covering much of its area. Viridias is cool in winter and warm in summer, giving an ample growing season. Relatively young nations populated mostly by Humans make up Viridias.
The Wolds are the barrier between east and west in Echelon. Although not tall, the grasslands and mountains that give the Wolds its name are steep. The wolds experiences cold winters courtesy of arctic winds from the north, and warm summers. The Wolds are a bastion of Human livelihood, with the Fey living in the north.
- Lutin Peninsula
The Lutin Peninsula sprouts from the south of Viridias and advances westwards into the ocean to the south of Calaer. It is a very mountainous region, with a spine of tall mountains separating its northern and southern grasslands and forests, punctuated with innumerable estuaries. The Lutin Peninsula is warm for most of the year, cooling in winter. Orcs are native to Lutin Peninsula.
Sechera is the peninsula to the south of the Wolds. By far Echelon's smallest region, it is fairly flat and boasts exceptional farming. Like the Lutin peninsula, its southerly location gives it plenty of warmth, although rain can be scarce at times. It is a melding pot between the Orcs, Trolls and Humans.
Nacarta lies on the south-east of Echelon, across the Wrinkled Gulf from Sechera and south of the mountains of the Ariannath. Nacarta is large, and boasts farmland, grasslands and mountains in equal measure. It is hot in summer, and gives only minimal respite during winter. Nacarta is arguably the birthplace of civilisation on Echelon, and Trolls call the land home.
Also for your reference, some maps: